Hypospadias is also known as congenital condition generally occurs to male in which the opening of urethra is located on underside of penis instead of end.
And urethra is a tube that helps to drain urine from bladder and then exits from body. When the case is more severe, then opening of urethra is in the middle of penis or at the base.
This is a common condition for many infants and adults. Because of this problem, boys generally face problem while urinating and they have to sit and pass urine. They cannot pass urine like other males as the urine is tends to flow downwards towards their feet.
What are the causes?
Well it is very important to know that causes behind such unexpected condition. Some of them are mentioned below that can help you know the reasons behind such problem.
If you see in general then the actual cause of hypospadias is unknown. You know already that it is a congenital abnormality and is seen more in infants that has a family history.
What happens in actually is when penis is developed in male fetus, some hormone stimulate the urethra and foreskin formation. When anything happens wrongly of these hormones then urethra acts abnormally.
Some other factors are also there that leads to such condition and they are:
- Androgen deficiency
- Exposure to smoking
- Fertility treatments
- Environmental factors
- Penis curvature
- Premature ejaculation
- Mothers age and weight
Signs and symptoms of hypospadias
There are few signs and symptoms which can help your know whether your son’s urethra is underside of penis or at the end. Some signs include:
- Curve of penis to downwards also known as “chordee”
- Unusual look of penis tip (glans)
- Urinating downwards like a spray (have to sit and pass the urine)
- Hooded look of penis that occurs due to extra foreskin on top side
Types of Hypospadias
You can categorize hypospadias in three different categories that totally depends on where urethra is opening:
- First near the head of penis (also known as subcoronal)
- Second, shaft of the penis (also known as midshaft)
- Third, on scrotum or where penis and scrotum meet (also known as penoscrotal)
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
What are the risk factors?
There are many risk factors linked with hypospadias but all are not known. But there are some factors that can be considered to be linked with such condition. They are:
Genetic– You might be familiar with the term gene but its variation can really affect the hormones that stimulates male genitals formation
Exposure to some things while pregnancy– There is seen a link between hypospadias and mother’s exposure to some hormones or in some compounds like industrial chemicals or pesticides.
Family history– Those family members who already suffers from hypospadias, their infants are also common to get into the condition
Risk of maternal over age 35– There are many women who becomes mother at or after the age of 35. But research suggests that those women who become mother at age 35, their infants have higher chance to suffer from hypospadias.
How is hypospadias is diagnosed?
When you go to your doctor for knowing the reason behind and treatment then he/she diagnose the condition based on physical exam. After that he/she will refer to surgeon who is a specialist in genital and urinary factors.
After all these, special team will provide better treatment. But when the exam cannot find the particular problem then it becomes difficult for the genitals to recognize as male or female.
In this case, there will be further investigation of the condition with multidisciplinary team.
What is the best treatment?
Before you go for the treatment, you should know whether your condition is minor or major. Because minor hypospadias don’t need much higher treatment like surgery. Generally, there is only one option with you and that is surgery.
Usually surgery is done when the male is between age 6 to 12 months.
Surgery is the one and only option that can help to get rid of the problem of hypospadias. No matter what forms of the condition male suffer from, surgery can cure it properly. Even there are some hypospadias forms, which does not correct with single surgery and need more than one.
Basically if you see the main purpose of the surgery then it is done to:
- Bring back the urethral opening at tip of penis so that male can pass urine while standing
- To make the bent penis straight and also to reduce the painful intercourse risk
When the patient is in sleep position, surgery is done under general anesthesia. In this, a small plastic tube (called as catheter) is fitted at the head of the penis with stitches. With the help of this, urine flows properly and after 7-14 days, the tube is removed without causing any type of discomfort to the patient.
Well I hope whatever I have discussed about hypospadias is now clear to you. In this blog, I have covered everything about the condition and also note one thing that if surgery is done earlier then it will be better for the child.
However, this surgery can be done at any age, even at adulthood so there is nothing to worry about the surgery process.